Dealing with a global increase in CPU usage

Imagine the following situation: you are supporting an application with many different components and a busy release cycle. One a Monday morning you find that quite a few processes in the database now run slower. Very soon, you find out that the slowdown is due to increased CPU time, but where to move from there? There is no evidence that CPU is too stressed, causing CPU queuing. You cannot isolate the problem to any specific PL/SQL (more...)

Join predicate pushdown

When a query contains a regular or inline view, there are 3 basic strategies for the optimizer to choose from:

1) merge the view (no “VIEW” operation in the plan)
2) instantiate the view as the whole and join it to the rest of the query (the plan shows a VIEW “operation”)
3) push join predicates inside the view (the plan shows “VIEW PUSHED PREDICATE”).

The last strategy in that list is similar to a (more...)

Join cardinality

In my previous post I showed an example of how a query’s performance can be improved using the waste minimization technique. My focus was primarily on identifying and enforcing the correct plan, but I received some questions regarding the root cause of the problem: why the optimizer came up with a wrong join order? It’s a very interesting question, and it deserves a separate post so that it could be explored in detail.

Let’s take (more...)

Query tuning by waste minimization: a real-life example

Today I’d like to share another tuning example from a recent case at work, which in my opinion is good for illustrating typical steps involved in SQL optimization process.

I was handed a poorly performing query with a relatively verbose text, so I will only give the general structure here (it will also prevent me from accidentally disclosing some sensitive information from that application):

       /* long list of columns here */
	   (select *  (more...)

AWR analysis: another case study

A few weeks ago, I received a request to review an AWR report for a database suffering from instance-level performance issues. Here are the the key parts of that report (with some masking):


DB Name         DB Id    Instance     Inst Num Release     RAC Host
------------ ----------- ------------ -------- ----------- --- ------------
XXXX           XXXXX     XXXXX               1  NO  XXXX

              Snap Id      Snap Time      Sessions Curs/Sess
            --------- ------------------- -------- ---------


Oracle cost-based optimizer (CBO) is great, but sometimes it’s making wrong choices even when correct inputs are fed to it. In such cases, you need a tool to override CBOs choices, and one of the most popular tools is optimizer hints. The main reason they’re so popular is that they allow “quick-and-dirty” kind of fixes for performance issues (provided that query text can be altered). Other ways may be more reliable, but generally require more (more...)


It’s been forever since I last shared any of my performance troubleshooting experiences at work. This week, I got a case that I think is worth publishing, and I decided to write about it in my blog. So, here we go…

A few days ago, I received a complaint about unstable performance of one of frequently running SQL reports on a 11gR2 database. Most of the time it completed within a couple of minutes, however, on (more...)

Plotting SLOB results in high resolution


If you work with I/O benchmarking of Oracle databases, you are almost certainly familiar with SLOB. SLOB is more than just an I/O benchmark — it’s become a de-facto industry standard. It’s simple, powerful and efficient, and it captures a plethora of metrics, both from the OS (output of iostat, mpstat etc.) and the database itself (in the form of an AWR report).

One thing that is missing though is visualization. It’s fairly (more...)

Nested loop internals — summary

In this article, I’ll summarize my observations regarding nested loop join mechanisms as well as previously known facts, so that everything would be in one place.

1) Nested loops are the simplest join mechanism in Oracle, where as data is read from one table (or more generally, row source), for each row another table (or more generally, row source), is probed (typically with an index proble, such as INDEX RANGE/UNIQUE SCAN) to see if there (more...)

Nested loop internals. Part 3: comparative efficiency

In the previous parts (here and here) of the series we looked at some aspects of nested loop I/O optimizations, but we have left out the most important question (from the practical point of view): how these methods are doing time-wise? Which one(s) is(are) faster, and how much savings are they offering compared to the non-optimized plan? We will turn to these questions now.

First of all, if we simply run everything with (more...)